Prevention of Zoonotic Diseases In Livestock And In Your Family
World Zoonosis Day is observed every year on 6th July to create awareness on the growing threat of zoonotic diseases and ways to prevent them. The theme for this year is: LET’S BREAK THE CHAIN OF ZOONOTIC TRANSMISSSION. Protecting and managing the health of animals that live along side human is vital. When we prevent diseases in animals, we safeguard the, health of the people. Zoonotic disease is defined as any diseases that are transmitted from animal to man and vice versa. Most of the emerging diseases are becoming zoonotic in nature due to adverse climatic condition, deforestation, rapid urbanisation, environmental pollution and increase in human — animals contact. Some of the important zoonotic diseases are Rabies, Anthrax, Brucellosis, Bovine Tuberculosis, Avian Influenza, Measly pork and emerging zoonotic diseases are Ebola virus, Nipah virus, Dengue, Chikungunya, Psittacosis, Bubonic plague, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Japanese encephalitis etc. Zoonotic diseases are transmitted from an infected animal to man trough various agents like virus, bacteria, protozoa, fungus, parasites etc. A person may be infected with animal’s diseases directly or indirectly and through intermediate hosts through bites and scratches of animals, flies, mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, bat, rat and snail.
The Various Sources of Zoonotic Diseases are:
From diseased animals, inhalations of infectious organisms, accidental inoculation of pathogen through cuts/injury on skin, infected animals discharge, contaminated soil and water, consumption of infected meat/milk
Preventive Measures for Protecting your Livestock/Pet from Zoonotic Diseases:
1. Daily separation of unhealthy/sick/diseased animals from healthy one .
2. Regular health check up and timely vaccination and deworming of your animal with proper dosage.
3. Always keep your animals in a clean, dry, well ventilated and airy shed with sufficient floor space.
4. Provide well balanced diet along with vitamin and mineral supplement.
5. Never feed kitchen or hotel wastes directly without cooking properly.
6. Daily cleaning of the animals shed, feeder/water trough thoroughly with water and disinfectant solution.
7. Newly purchased animals should be kept in a separate shed for atleast a month to prevent spread of zoonotic/ infectious diseases.
8. Proper drainage system in and around the animals shed in order to prevent stagnation of water.
9. Proper disposal of all animals’ waste products like faeces, litter materials and dead animals etc away from the animals shed.
10. Never open dead diseased carcass in the farm, it should be immediately buried under deep burial method.
11. Restrict visitors from entering your animals shed at all time.
12. A foot dip (mixture of water’ and disinfectant like phenol /potash /lime ) should be kept at the entrance of your animal shed for dipping of shoe before entering and after coming out of the animal shed to prevent spread of any infectious disease.
Various Steps for Protecting your Family
from Zoonotic Diseases of Livestock and Pets are:
1. Meat should be thoroughly washed and properly cooked before consumption.
2. Consume milk from healthy animals only and never consume raw milk.
3. Yearly health check up of animals attendant.
4. Any unhealthy/ diseased animals or animals under medication should not be slaughtered for human consumption.
5. Prevent contamination of meat during slaughter time from flies, dirty water and un-hygienic habits of butchers.
6. Never allow your pet dogs to lick your face/hands or any household eatables/items.
7. Never enter your home directly after visiting livestock farm /market place/slaughter house or human hospital.
8. Wash hands thoroughly after handling animals, fresh meat and livestock/pet.
9. Pregnant women/ infant/sick person should not have direct contact with any livestock animals /pet animals.
10. While attending to sick animals always wear separate working clothes, closed shoe/face mask/gloves and clean yourself thoroughly thereafter Zoonotic diseases been the linkage between animals and human beings, as such collaborative efforts from all stake holders must work together to break the chain of zoonotic diseases transmission for a better sound animal health and for human health.
Dr. Elizabeth Yhome
Veterinary Hospital Kohima