Views & Reviews
Brief flow chart of the Naga National Movement
[dropcap]N[/dropcap]agas were free people as far as remembered history goes.. They remained free till 1832 when a levy of 700 commanded by Captain Jenkins and Lt. Pemberton first entered the Naga Hills in the South in a bid to make a road link to the plains of Assam which they did by traversing Western Angami and Zeliang areas via Benreu and Papoolongmai despite fierce opposition.The first formal war between Nagas British occurred in 1833. British-Naga ceasefire was formalized at Khonoma in 1879.
The Naga Club was formed at Kohima in 1918 after World War I veteran Nagas returned from France. It submitted Naga Independence memorandum to Simon Commission on Oct. 01, 1929. British India Act of 1935 also declared Naga Hills as “Excluded Area.”
Naga National Council (NNC) was formed in 1945. The first Naga delegates met Mahatma Gandhi at Bhangi Colony in Delhi in July, 1947. This was followed by declaration of Naga Independence Day on August 14, 1947. The second Naga delegation met Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru New Delhi in July 1948 wherein he refused the question of Naga sovereignty.
Nevertheless, Naga Independence voluntary Plebiscite was signed wherein 99.9% of the people put their thumb prints in support of full independence on May 16, 1951.
This was followed by formation of Naga Youth Movement and Women Federation. Nagas also rejected the first Indian Parliamentary Elections of 1952. When Nehru came to Kohima accompanied by then Burmese Premier U Nu in 1953, an inconsiderate bureaucrat refused Naga delegation’s request to meet Nehru separately. During the subsequent public meeting at the local playground, Nagas walked out.
Hongking Govt. (Free Naga) under leadership of Thungti Chang was formed. The first war of Naga Independence in Naga Hill Excluded Area began in 1955. The Naga National Council (NNC) began non-co-operation with the Govt. of India in 1955. The federal Government of Nagaland (FGN) was formed March 22, 1956.
Indo-Naga ceasefire was signed at Wokha on September 06, 1964 Revolutionary Govt, of Nagaland (RGN) was formed in 1968. Govt. of India abrogated the Indo-Naga ceasefire in 1972.
Condemnation of Shillong Accord by Isak and Muivah in the name of NNC/FGN on Aug 16.1976. Army coup stayed by Shillong Accordists against Isak & Muivah 1978.
The original NSCN came into being on March 01, 1980 to uphold Naga Sovereignty. However, there was division in NSCN in 1988. NSCN (Isak & Muivah) NSCN (Khaplang) formed IBRF (Indo-Burmese Revolutionary Front) in 1990. The Naga case was filed in international court (UNO) on 9.1.1993. Became a member of (Unrepresented Nations and People’s Organization (UNPO) on 23.1.1993.
Formation of NNWC in 1981 was to promote understanding, Naga national unity by rejecting Shillong Accord. Gen. Mowu went abroad in 1986. Re-organised original NNC by electing a new team headed by Khodao Yanthan on July 17.1990.
Official Oath of Secretary given to Khadao on 9.18.1990, NNC, 1st application to UNPO, oon 2.27.1990, NNC 2nd Application to UNPO on 1.21.1993. Formation of Nagas peoples convention 1959.
Signing of 16 point Agreement by Nagas Peoples Convention in 1960 was followed by formation of Nagaland State on Dec. 01, 1963 (within Indian Union). The RGN surrendered in 1969. Shillong Accord was signed between then Governor L.P. Singh “on behalf of the GoI and Represntatives of the underground organizations” on Nov 11, 1975. Eastern Oking was misled by Kohima Transit Campers.
The Accordists formed People’s Militia of Nagaland to confront NSCN, since 1986.
Phizo died in London on April 30. 1990.
Shillong Accordists made Adino as NNC Acting President on 1.5.1990. They confirmed Adino’s Presidency on 5.12.1990.
The author is retiredRtd P.A. to D.C Wokha